Best bibliography writers website for university

Citing Your Sources - Library Subject Guides - Yale

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APA for Academic Writing 2016-2017 - Mount Royal

APA for Academic Writing 2016-2017 - Mount Royal The main sources used in science are reseach articles and review articles published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Other common source types are books and chapters from edited books and websites are also sometimes used. As a general rule, you can say that within science it is still more acknowledged to use the more traditional sources, i.e. research articles, review articles, books and chapters in books than websites. Since library databases include citations to all sorts of sources it's important to be able to identify different types. A research article (or original article or research paper) is an article published in an academic journal where researchers publish the results of their original, empirical research and it is a primary source. A very important part of the research article publishing process is peer reviewing. Peer reviewing is a process that academic journals use to ensure the articles they publish are of high quality. When an article is submitted to a peer reviewed journal, the editors send it out to other researchers in the same field (the author's peers) to get their opinion on the quality of the work, its relevance to the field, its appropriateness for the journal, etc. Research articles typically follow a particular format (often denoted IMRAD) and include specific elements that show how the research study was designed, how the data was gathered, how it was analyzed, and what the conclusions are. Sometimes these sections may be labelled a bit differently, but these basic elements are consistent: Abstract: A brief, comprehensive summary of the article, written by the author(s) of the article. Introduction: This introduces the problem, tells you why it’s important, and outlines the background, purpose, and hypotheses the authors are trying to test. Material & Methods: Describes in detail how and, if a field study, where the research was conducted, and may be subdivided into subsections describing design of experiment, apparatus used and statistical methods. It should be sufficiently detailed to justify the conclusions. and Discussion: The authors explain how the data fits their original hypothesis, compare with other results, state their conclusions, and look at the theoretical and practical implications of their research. References: A list of all sources cited in the article. A review article is an attempt by one or more scientists to sum up and analyze the current state of the research on a particular topic. Since a review article sums up results published in primary research articles it is a secondary source. Ideally, the author(s) searches for relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the “state of the art” as it now stands. There are different types of books: Textbooks offer a broad-based foundation to the study of subject. Review articles give you information on the background and context of a subject as well as the main people working in a field, recent major advances and discoveries, significant gaps in the research, current debates and ideas of where research might go next. There are also more advanced textbooks, but still textbooks contain well established knowledge and the latest findings are (usually) not included. Review articles are virtual gold mines if you want to find out what the key articles are for a given topic. Specialist topic books deals with more narrow topics in a more scientific way. the different chapters in the book are written by different authors who are experts at their part of the topic respectively. If you read and thoroughly digest a good review article, you should be able to “talk the talk” about a given topic. In edited books it is the chapter that is the entity you are using as a source and what you are going to write a reference to. Unlike research articles, review articles Meta-analysis - "Meta-analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of different studies to see if the overall effect is significant". Since writing a reference to a chapter from an edited book differs from writing a reference to a full book you will find specific instructions on how to write a correct reference to a chapter from an edited book in the section about "How to write...". Reports are written documents which present focused, salient content, generally to a specific audience. Reports are often published by different governmental bodies, i.e. Environmental Protection Agencies, but it is also common within business, education, science, and other fields, and are often to display the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry. Reports are not at all as strictly defined as a research article. A website is a page or collection of pages on the World Wide Web that contains specific information which was all provided by one person or entity and traces back to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL). You should be very critical and try to find out as much as you can about the authors of a website before you use it as a source. In contrast to research articles there is NO peer reviewing process for webpages/websites!!! There are lots of information on how to evaluate the quality of a website, see links below. A quick start is to take a look at the letters after the dot in the link: which denotes education denotes academic denotes organisation denotes government denotes commercial denotes society You should provide an in-text citation for any images, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, tables or figures that you reproduce in your work, and provide a full reference as with any other type of source you use. In the reference list you should add the name of the person and telephone number and/or e-mail address to make it possible for other persons to contact your source. When you use an image or a picture you did not create yourself, you must provide a citation and most often you have to get permission from the copyright holder to use the image. When you have got information by talking with a person you should address this as personal communication. The APA website at including Frequently Asked Questions. Avoiding Plagiarism – Citation Principles for Essays and Term Papers. When using the author said/stated format without the word 'that,' start the quotation with. of formatting from one or more examples on pages 7-10 that are the best fit.

Citing a Web page - LibGuides - Bowling Green State

Citing a Web page - LibGuides - Bowling Green State Books (including chapter in book)Articles in printed form Articles in electronic form Reports (research reports, organizational reports etc.)Official documents Conference proceedings Reference works (encyclopedias and dictionaries)Web sites Social media (blogs, Facebook, Twitter)Audiovisual media (motion pictures, videos, podcasts, television series episodes, songs, records) Patents Standards Unpublished and informally published manuscripts Other (data sets, software, mobile applications (apps), Power Point slides, lecture notes, brochures)Sources by the same author and same year are alphabetized by title. Reference is constructed in the same way as chapter in a printed book (see above) but with source information added. If publication year is not available, state See more on in-text citation here. If it is a freely available book or book chapter, give the full web address. State the name of the database or web site from where the book or book chapter was retrieved. This means that the first issue in a new volume of the journal starts numbering the pages from page 1 and onwards and the following issues of the same volume continue from the last page number of each preceding issue: Format: Author, A. If an article has more than seven authors, the first six authors are spelled out, followed by ... If an article has up to seven authors, they are all spelled out in the reference list. The hyperlink is usually not active: Von Ledebur, S. Name and number of the series are usually found on the front or back of the publication, or on the title page inside the report. Many articles found in databases are assigned a digital object identifier (DOI) which creates a unique and persistent identifier. If the year cannot be stated, use the term "in press" in parentheses instead of year. Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Research reports are stated in the same ways as books but with the added possibility to also state any name and number of the report series. Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits. References to articles in electronic form are constructed as articles in printed form but with access information, such as DOI number or web address, added. The hyperlink is usually not active: Example (free access): Wilhelm, J., Thacker, B., & Wilhelm, R. Creating Constructivist Physics for Introductory University Classes. Hämtad från (restricted access): Muntlin, Å., Gunningberg, L., & Carlsson, M. Patients´ perceptions of quality of care at an emergency department and identification of areas for quality improvement. For references to articles published online before they have been published in print or assigned final year, volume and number, use the phrases "Advance online publication" and DOI or "Retrieved from" and other web address. However, you should state the publisher's (organization's) name as part of the retrieval information. Give the URL to the journal homepage if you need a subscription to the journal in order to access the article. It is not necessary to state place of publication when a link to the full text is available. The role of vision in the rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system: Part 1. Give the exact URL if it is a freely accessible (open access) article. Should this be missing, the report is treated like a publication with no author. SOU and Ds are treated like a report with an organization as author if a committee or something similar is stated clearly. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book. Then, the organization name is not needed in the retrieval information: American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. However, below are some examples on how such references could be stated. The reference is structured in the same way as a chapter in a book: Lambertz, G. The reference ends with a link to the video: [Video file]. Retrieved from citation includes title in abbreviated form and within quotation marks:. Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation: the report is published in the name of an organization (corporate author), the name of the organization is stated as author. Since the APA style guide has an American perspective it is hard to find guiding rules for referring to Swedish legal and parliamentary material. A conference paper in a printed book (conference proceeding or anthology originating from a conference). The title of the news report video is moved to author position, in italics, followed by description of medium ([Video file]) and, like newspaper articles, year and date. Proceedings from conferences, meetings and symposia can be published in book or periodical form and are written in the same way as books, book chapters and articles. In this case the article has been assigned a DOI (Digital Object Identifier): Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. A reference book with clearly stated editor(s): Vanden Bos, G. Use descriptions of main entries (main contributors), such as See more on in-text citation here. The reference is structured in the same way as a journal article: Williams, R. Retrieved from conference paper in electronic form from a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. Link to the homepage or start page of the reference publication. Write the author name or author nickname, followed by year, month and day of entry. The hyperlink is usually not active: Rosenhouse, J. The hyperlink is usually not active: Science News Org. Help on schoolwork in the New Year: use the rich archives of science journalism found on Science News for Kids. Audiovisual media incorporates motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts, podcasts, static objects like maps, artwork, and photos. The whole reference is constructed in the same way as a chapter in a book. A conference paper in a conference proceedings which is published on a regularly basis. Structure of clonal and polyclonal cell arrays in chimeric mouse retina. Paper presented at the First Workshop on I/O Virtualization, San Diego, CA. For web based reference publications, state the date of retrieval, since contents may be changed over time. If an entry has one or several authors, they should be stated. The following example is structured like a chapter in a book. Remember that the main point is to be clear and make your sources retrievable. Construct Twitter posts in the same way as Facebook posts (see above). /Science News Org/status/153882443680714753In-text citation: See more on in-text citation here. If the recording year is not the same as the main entry year, this is stated last in parantheses. The example below is from the database ERIC: Kamii, C. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Columbus, OH. If an entry does not have an author, the title of the entry is placed in the author's place. Treat these references as chapters in books (above). With this last point in mind, it is a good idea to self-archive this kind of documents, in print or digitally, if you are using them as source material for a paper. Retrieved from a comment to the post above the author in this example uses a nickname: Owlmirror. In the meantime, before any guidelines are created by APA, here are some suggestions on how to construct such references, partly taken from the APA Style Blog. Facebook pages that are private or for friends only cannot be retrieved by everyone and should therefore be treated like personal communication and only cited in the text of the document. If some one else other than the originator has recorded it, this is stated in square brackets. doi:10.1073/pnas.0805417105If the conference paper has been retrieved from a database which is not open for all you should not write the direct link to the document. ED389558)In-text citation: See more on in-text citation here. The hyperlink is usually not active: World Trade Organization. Social media, which includes blogs, Facebook and Twitter posts, are usually not archived for posterity. The APA style manual does not give any guidance on how to construct Facebook references. President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama wish you a merry Christmas... Retrieved from citation: See more on in-text citation here. As main entry, state the name of the person or persons who have written the piece of music, and not the one who has recorded it. Since web site content might be edited from time to time, it is very important to state the retrieval date. Some of the examples below, like Facebook and Twitter, are not included in the latest APA style manual, but suggestions are given on how to construct them. Retrieved from citation: See more on in-text citation here. Producent (Executive producer), See more on in-text citation here. Add web address if it is an online source (see example above). If no date is available on the web site, use (=no date) in parentheses instead of year. On [Medium of recording: CD, LP, cassette, MP3 etc.]. (Year of recording if different from song copyright year)Example: Song writer and artist is the same person: Lang, K. If an entry has no author, state the entry word first. If there is no author stated but there is an organization behind the web site, the organization name should be given as author (corporate author). If there is an author to the web article or page, he/she should be stated as such. But according to APA's facebook pages, such a reference can be constructed in the following way: Format: Artist. The hyperlink is usually not active: Format: Author, A. In the latest edition of APA's style manual, this type of reference is not included. Web address is stated when the document is retrieved from the Internet. Web address is given when the document is retrieved from the Internet. (Year of recording if different from copyright year)Example: The following example is a CD issue of a record recorded earlier: Pink Floyd. This category also includes works that have not been formally published but are available on personal or institutional web sites. It is a very good idea to state a university or organizational affiliation when this is stated in the document. If you have found the patent in a database, the name of the database should be stated. This type consists of works in progress, submitted to publisher for publication or works that are finished but have not yet been submitted for publication. Add the publication year (also issue date) of the patent, not the filing date. The publisher is often the same as the standardisation organization. The hyperlink is usually not active: Pew Hispanic Center. Write the inventors' names as entry in the reference list. Write the name of the standardisation organization in its full form. Also state a suitable document type description in square brackets. Please note: You do not have to write reference entries for standard software and programming languages, such as Microsoft Excel or Word, Java, Adobe Photoshop or SPSS. Write the data provider and year and italicize the title of the data set. The hyperlink is usually not active: Gunnarsson, D. Since contents may be edited, it is a good idea to state retrieval date. Lecture notes belong to the category personal communication and are not included in the reference list. The interactive tester (Version 4.0) [Computer software]. If it is available on the web, state the URL instead of place and producer: St. The hyperlink is usually not active: Rightsholder, A. Write type of lecture presentation (Power Point slides or any other similar kind of presentation) in square brackets. Write the rightsholder, which stands for either an individual or corporate author of the software, followed by year, title of software, version number, description of form and from where you have got it. Title of Software or Program (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from Apps on the Android platform would have an address like: https://play.google.com/store/apps In-text citation: See more on in-text citation here. Available from Psychology Software Tools: Mate/In-text citation: See more on in-text citation here. Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile application software]. The APA Style website provides an overview of information. Information about citing e-mail messages, websites with no author, entire.

Integrity - Student home, The <strong>University</strong> of York

Integrity - Student home, The University of York An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. ABSTRACTS Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author's point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression. THE PROCESS Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style. Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic. CRITICALLY APPRAISING THE BOOK, ARTICLE, OR DOCUMENT For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources. CHOOSING THE CORRECT FORMAT FOR THE CITATIONS Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living. This section of the website is about academic integrity and will help you gain the. provide the essential information for good practice and avoiding misconduct.

CSE Biology - Citation Styles - Research Guides at

CSE Biology - Citation Styles - Research Guides at Presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in , seventeenth edition, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers. Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography. The more concise author-date style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author's last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided. Aside from the use of notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Click on the tabs below to see some common examples of materials cited in each style. For a more detailed description of the styles and numerous specific examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 8th edition of Turabian for bibliography style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style. If you are uncertain which style to use in a paper, consult your instructor. The following examples illustrate citations using notes-bibliography style. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above. If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." Ph D diss., University of Michigan, 2010.1. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009). " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009. If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number. Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (Ph D diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2. E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. The following example shows the more formal version of a note. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to rather than using the URL in your address bar. Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. The following example shows the more formal version of a note. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead. The following examples illustrate citations using author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 18 and 19 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the notes-bibliography system, click on the Notes-Bibliography tab above. If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24. If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number. Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." Ph D diss., University of Michigan. A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified. For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If there is no date listed on the site, use the access date as the primary date in the citation. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to rather than using the URL in your address bar. E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. ") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation. Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . .") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation. APA, Chicago, CSE Biology, MLA, Cite Internet Sources, Citation Tools, and Other Citation Styles. They can help writers to organize their arguments more effectively by. Madison WI University of Wisconsin Press. p.

Chicago Notes-<b>Bibliography</b> - Research Guides at

Chicago Notes-Bibliography - Research Guides at In your works cited list, abbreviate months as follows: January = Jan. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Date The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches. Note: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website. If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day. Access Date Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of publication or last modified date, URL. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Note: The publisher or sponsoring organization can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the home page or on a page that gives information about the site. Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Name of Organization Affiliated with the Website, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Blog Network/Publisher if given, Day Month Year of blog post, URL of blog post. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Wikimedia Foundation, Day Month Year entry was last modified, Time entry was last modified, URL of entry. Accessed Day Month Year Wikipedia entry was last viewed. Note: The date and time the article was last modified appears at the bottom of each Wikipedia article. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Wikipedia may not be considered an acceptable source for a college or university assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check your assignment. ("Title of Entry") ("Body Image") Note: If a dictionary or encyclopedia entry has no author, the in-text citation should include the title of the entry. Note: Date of access is now optional in MLA 8th edition. The title of the entry should be in quotation marks, with each word starting with a capital letter. If no publication date is included, we recommend including the date you last accessed the site. Note: As Facebook posts can be lengthy, describe the post instead of reposting its content. To find the time of a Facebook post, hover your mouse next to the date of the post over the clock icon. It may not be possible to link directly to the specific post itself. Notes-Bibliography style preferred by those in the humanities; Author-Date. Ebook Journal Article Magazine Article Newspaper Article Website, Blog.

Citation and style manuals <em>University</em>

Citation and style manuals University Some professors will discourage you from using sources you find or access over the Internet. Although such restrictions may be excessive, there are reasons to be wary. It’s much easier to publish information on the Internet than to publish a book or periodical in print. Since it’s easier, Web posters are not always as careful to make sure that the information is accurate. For one thing, print publishing is more expensive, so many print publishers are careful not to make mistakes or to cut corners, in case what they publish turns out to be unreliable—and therefore useless. The seeming anonymity of the Internet also encourages some people to write things quickly, without checking to be sure of their facts or their conclusions. Most of us have had the experience of sending by email something we wrote quickly—perhaps when rushed or angry. Often these are things we wouldn’t print, sign, and mail, because those extra steps give us time to consider our words more carefully, and also because we recognize a higher expectation that things in print should be trustworthy. In the context of writing in college, material from much of the Internet is less reliable than print sources because it’s hard to tell who wrote or posted it. , the essence of academic scholarship is a conversation among authors. On many websites, it’s difficult to determine the author of the material. If the site creator’s name is listed, it’s still sometimes hard to tell whether the information has been reprinted from some other source. If you reach a website through a search engine, you may have to find the site’s homepage or search around in the “contact” information in order to identify the author or the organization that sponsors the site. Even if you find the author’s name, Internet sources make it harder to tell what status that person has in his or her field. Is the author an expert, a fan, or just a crackpot? After finding a website that seems useful and tracking down the author’s name, you may need additional research (perhaps using Google) to learn whether the author has any claim to credibility. But of course, countless reliable sources can be accessed on the web, and even unreliable sources have some uses in research writing. Popular Sources for more about unreliable sources.) These days, many students and scholars use Web sources extensively in research and teaching. But they take extra care to assess and report the provenance of these sources. In this guide’s discussion of Internet sources, we draw distinctions between various kinds of websites: those sponsored by organizations, those devoted to a single topic, and private websites that are maintained by a single person—often a devoted fan of the topic under discussion. To some degree, these categories distinguish more and less reliable sources of information. But the distinctions are neither clear nor entirely stable. Some organizations, while established leaders in their fields, have very few resources available to maintain and update their websites. Some private individuals, although hosting websites as a hobby, are experts in their fields and consider accuracy on their sites to be the highest priority. It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use material from the Internet. If you give a sense of what kind of Web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. When listing Internet sources in your References or Works Cited, the most important thing to remember is that your goal is to make it easy for a reader to consult your sources. As you will see in the discussion of specific categories, however, some of these items may be hard to determine. (This same goal is paramount when listing print sources.) For most sites, that means you should include the URL for the page you cite in your paper (the web address that begins “http”). The ease of using electronic sources of any kind can make it harder to keep track of where the source ends and your original contribution begins—and you must always keep that distinction clear. But websites change, and the address you used won’t always be active when your reader tries to view a source. See How to Copy and Paste but Not Plagiarize for advice about how to use electronic sources wisely. For that reason, it’s important to include both the date you accessed the site and also a full account of the person, group, or organization that sponsors the site. Most of this guide focuses on helping you subordinate sources to your own ideas. Knowing more about the author helps readers to assess the source and also, sometimes, to find the source when the website has been moved or revised. In general, we highlight your need to respect authors’ rights, explaining how to give people credit for their ideas while distinguishing your own original contributions. The general form of a citation from an Internet source is: Author’s name. But the ease of using electronic sources also raises dangers about what might be called rights, leading you to make public words that the original author intended only as private communication. When someone speaks in public, participates in an interview, or publishes a piece of writing, he or she implicitly agrees that other people may refer to this material in research. But some electronic sources blur the line between public and private communication. (Private communications also have a different force of authority than deliberately published material; see Scholarly vs. Popular Sources for more information.) If in doubt about whether a given text should be considered public or private, we urge you to check with the original author before quoting it in your own work. Although the following categories overlap, they may help you decide when more care is warranted to avoid an invasion of privacy. (1) Web versions of sources that also appear in print are generally safe to quote, since most print publishers take care to secure rights before publication. (2) Publicly accessible websites are generally safe to quote. You may occasionally find a website reposting information that’s clearly from category 3, in which case you may wish to contact the original author before using the material. But if you can access the information through regular surfing, without passwords, it’s probably safe to use. (3) Communications sent via email or accessed by membership in a specific group are generally considered private, and you should exercise care in quoting from them in your papers. Even in this last category, there’s not a hard and fast rule you can follow. If your university sends an announcement to all students via email, you may reasonably consider this public information. If your best friend reveals something damaging or embarrassing in an email sent only to you, it’s clearly private. But what if a professor writes to you about something related to the course? Or if you receive a message that’s sent only to the members of a small club? What about the discussion forums that many courses set up for students to exchange ideas about the readings? Unless there’s been an explicit agreement that the material is public, we encourage you to check before using such messages in your work. One convenience of using electronic sources is the ability—once you’ve selected the passages you wish to quote—to copy and paste quotations instead of having the retype them into your paper. Even before you begin drafting a paper, copying and pasting sections from your sources seems an easy way to take notes, so that you can look the material over later without surfing back to the website. This very convenience, however, also leads writers into danger. In the midst of researching and taking notes, it’s just too easy to paste quotations into your file with the intention to go back later and note down the source. When you return to your draft, it can be hard to distinguish your own writing from the passages you’ve copied. As discussed in Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism, the worst consequence of failing to acknowledge sources is to yourself: if you paste in someone’s words as your own, you will miss the opportunity to add your commentary, and therefore miss an opportunity to grow as a thinker and writer. Most of this guide focuses on such intellectual reasons for working properly with sources, rather than emphasizing the penalties of plagiarism. But because the copy and paste technique is so common, it’s especially important to warn you about its potential for abuse. Every year students come before the Yale Executive Committee having committed plagiarism through pasting material from the Internet into their papers and then forgetting to go back and identify the sources. Even when the oversight seems unintentional, these students are guilty of plagiarism, and must face penalties. But you can avoid this danger with one very simple precaution: Every time you highlight material from a website to use in your paper, save the material to a new file. Copy the URL (the full web address that begins with “http”) at the top of the new file, and give the file a name that briefly identifies the website. Taking this extra step will allow you to review your sources when you’ve made more progress with your paper. So if you were thinking of using a piece of this web page in your paper, you’d copy the relevant portion into a Word file, add the URL, and perhaps call the file “Writing at Yale Copy/Paste Advice.” You’ll still be able to avoid retyping by copying and pasting from the new file you’ve made. But you will have created a record of your excerpts to help you distinguish your sources from your own work. For your own convenience, you may also want to add other citation information below the URL—such as author and date of access—before moving on to examine the next website. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information about how to cite websites. Popular Sources for advice about how to use Internet sources effectively. Note: Even when you properly identify Internet sources, the very pasting that feels like a time-saver can lead you to use block quotations that are longer and less precise than necessary. Many writers, especially beginning academic writers, are better served by retyping quotations, because this extra step leads them to edit quotations and to paraphrase. You could still cut and paste to help you keep track of interesting passages before deciding which ones to quote in your paper (remembering, as suggested above, to create a new file for each website you work with). .] [(original publication date).] [Retrieved from URL] Note: in APA style, no access date is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article. Also note: when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.) Chicago: 16. Aristotle, .] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. ] [Retrieved from URL] Note: in APA style, no date of access is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article. If a print journal, magazine, or newspaper maintains a version of its publication URL online, articles that you cite are listed in your Works Cited or list of References by the name of the article’s author. In MLA style, the name is followed by the title of the article—in APA, the publication date comes after the author. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title. In that case, be sure to give at least a few key words from the title in the body of your paper, so that readers know how to find the source in your bibliography.) Next list the title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper. Give the publication date of the article next for MLA, followed by the date that you accessed the site. For APA , give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.) Note: If you use a database service (such as Lexis-Nexis) to access electronic sources, you must credit the database. See Databases (like Lexis-Nexis) for more information. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than online journals or private websites, their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. ,] [full page numbers for article.] [Retrieved from database name or URL] Note: in APA style, no date of access is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article. Also note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style adds the URL (the Web address that begins with “http”), and does not name the database service directly if that name is part of the Web address. For Chicago, as for APA„ when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.) Several companies maintain databases that make it easier to find articles on the topic you’re researching. Using these databases is especially helpful for connecting you to scholarly sources, which have been vetted by experts in their field before publication. The Yale library system subscribes to many such databases, allowing you to access them for free. Popular Sources for more information about using scholarly sources. If you use a service like this—such as Lexis-Nexis—to find an article that you then cite in your paper, you must include the database name in your Works Cited or list of References. (The principle is that you want your reader to know how to retrieve your source for further research.) Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. ] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. ] [Retrieved from URL] Note: in APA style, no date of access is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article. An online journal is a website that publishes new material on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), with a journal title or other masthead, but that does not release a print publication. Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than Online Journals or Private Websites, their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. An online journal is not the same as the online version of a periodical that also publishes in print. When including an article from an online journal in your Works Cited or list of References, list it by the name of the article’s author. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. (See Online Versions of Print Periodicals.) The distinction matters, because online journals—while often more reliable than private websites—are often considered less reliable than print sources or Internet versions of print sources. This information is followed in MLA style by the article’s title, by the publication date in APA style. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title.) Next list the online journal’s name. Give the publication date of the article (for MLA), followed by the date that you accessed the site. Finally, give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.) Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. ] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. Retrieved , from the World Socialist Web Site:https://org/en/articles/2015/05/11/illi-m11(link is external) [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [page title.] [Retrieved date of access,] [from organization name:] [URL] Chicago: 20. Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. For certain topics, it’s also useful to examine what the interested parties say, even if you must remember to balance it with research into other points of view. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present. Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. (More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution.) Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. Some pages you access will have separate titles or sub-titles, which can be used like the titles of an article in a journal. This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. After this comes the full URL for the material you’re using. The final item is the date that you accessed the site. Note: It’s sometimes hard to find the author of material on an organization website. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. If you can’t find any of this information, even after searching through the site’s links, you may be using a private website or topic website, and should review the information for those sources. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. .] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. .] [Retrieved date of access,] [from URL] Chicago: 21. #.] [“shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. Websites that are print sources posted online, online versions of print periodicals, online journals, or organization websites are discussed separately. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. By “topic websites,” we mean sites that are dedicated to a single issue, such as the life of a famous person, the main ideas of a social movement, or the details of a popular television show. Unlike online journals or other periodicals, topic websites are not usually revised on a regular schedule, although material may be added from time to time. And unlike organization websites, topic websites do not usually promote the products or mission of a particular institution—which means they also don’t have the organization’s reputation to back up their authority. Finally, topic websites may also overlap with private websites, which often focus on a single issue that their author is passionate about. Still, the category is worth knowing about, because a lot of background information on general topics like “Medieval Literature” or “Film Noir” is found on websites that don’t easily fit any of the other categories. You’ll want to double-check material you find on Topic Websites, and you may need to treat them as popular sources rather than scholarly sources. If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources. (See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information.) When these websites appear to be wholly or primarily the work of one author, list by the author’s name, followed by the title of the article or specific page you’re using (if there is one), the website title (often the name of the topic), the date of posting (if known), the date you accessed it, and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” If the site you’re using is sponsored by an organization of some kind (like a company, a university department, or a political group), it may qualify as an organization website, and you should review the information for those sources. Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. ] [date of access] [medium.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. .] [Retrieved date of access,] [from URL] Chicago: 22. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. Some dabble in multiple topics, about which the site’s author may not even profess any special expertise. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. Some announce themselves as fan sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. Still others are quite professional in presentation, with authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience. Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened with amateurish design and graphics. But it’s increasingly easy to host websites that look polished and professional, which can make it hard to judge whether the site’s sponsors take seriously the responsibility to check and update their information. For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative information. Scholarly Sources for more information.) It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private websites. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. When using material from a private website, list by the author (if known), then by the title of the article or specific Webpage you’re using (if known), and the date of posting (if listed). Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable. If the site is part of an identifiable online group (like “Facebook” or “tumblr”), include that title next. Next, list the date that you accessed the site and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” Some of these details may be hard to identify. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated. Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from Livejournal: [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title of entry [format description].] [Weblog post.] [Retrieved date of access,] [from site sponsor or publisher:] [URL] Chicago: 23. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. Blogs—an abbreviation of “weblogs”—are websites or areas of websites devoted to dated reflections by the site’s author. .] [posting date.] [site sponsor or publisher.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. Many blogs are hosted on or presented as private websites where the author claims little special expertise or no professional affiliation relevant to the blog’s topic. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. In these cases, see the discussion of Private Websites, and use the same care when evaluating the material you access. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. But blogs are increasingly included as a feature of organization websites (Amazon.com, for instance, now invites authors to post blogs on their work) or as elements of online versions of print periodicals (the website hosts several blogs by reporters and editors). When using a blog that’s identified with a larger journal or organization, follow the advice listed for those general sources. The example above also lists “Livejournal” as the site’s sponsor. Even when hosted by a recognized organization, most blogs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. This information might be considered analogous to the organization that sponsors an organization website. But in some cases, it may not be necessary to give the site sponsor. Livejournal, for instance, does not supervise posters’ comments very closely. A sponsor like “Facebook” has more rules and some restrictions to access, but is still doesn’t stand behind the material as much as an online journal would. When deciding whether to include the site sponsor, use your judgment: if the blog pursues a theme in common with the sponsor, list the sponsor. Note: It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use blogs. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. #.] [author name or screen name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. The formats below cover the most common ways to cite video clips that were published online (on sites like You Tube and Vimeo). “Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil.” Online video clip. Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources. Video that was first published elsewhere but accessed online (on sites like Netflix and Hulu) is cited differently. .] [site sponsor or publisher,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. [format description].] [Retrieved date of access,] [from URL] Note: If you know both the author’s name and his or her screen name (and they are different from one another), APA style cites the author’s name first (last name, first initial) followed by the screen name in square brackets (e.g. The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. Video that was first published elsewhere before being posted online, is usually attributed to the individuals most responsible for making it—the director or performers. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. See the citation formats for Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video for more information. Depending on who seems most responsible for the existence of the video you’re citing, you may choose to attribute an online video to its creators rather than the individual who posted it. For example, a film that is released online or an ongoing web series, may be more accurately attributed to the director or actors than the person who uploaded it to the Internet. For citation formats that attribute video to the actors or director, see Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [discussion group,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. Retrieved June 26, 2006 from [email protected](link sends e-mail). However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title or subject line [format description].] [Retrieved date of access from address.] Chicago: 24. #.] [author last name, ”title or subject heading.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other. Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course. (Many Yale courses, for instance, provide forum discussions through the Classesv2 server.) Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Note: Many such forums expect communications to be private. Although discussions limited to professionals in a field may be more authoritative, in general you should probably treat material from these forums as popular rather than scholarly sources. Be sure to check the group’s policies on reproduction of such material. Even if an FAQ or moderator seems to make reproduction permissible, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the poster’s permission before making the material public. If you use material from an electronic forum, list by author’s name. Follow that with the most specific identifying information you can give about the particular post. Depending on the type of discussion, there may be subject headings or specific message numbers on a given post. You may or may not be able to tell the posting date. In MLA style, include the name of the sponsoring forum. Since most of these discussions do not supervise postings, do not put the sponsor name in italics. Follow this with the date you accessed the material. The last item in your listing—the electronic address—brings up one point on which MLA and APA styles differ starkly: in APA, if the posting cannot be retrieved, you cite it in your paper as a personal communication and do not include it in your list of References. Even when membership is restricted to a particular organization, most listervs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. Even in MLA style, it’s better to cite the message in the form that’s most easily accessible to your reader: many listservs archive their messages on the web, for instance, even though the original postings are delivered by email. Also note: As discussed in Signaling Sources, it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use listservs. Tiane Donahue, “Re: Your WPA Question,” email message to author, December 14, 2000. #.] [author full name, “subject heading,”] [type of message,] [date of message.] Note: Chicago style footnotes give full information for private messages, but does not list them in the Bibliography. If you give a sense of what kind of Websource you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [message recipient.] [message date.] [medium.] APA: Do not include in list of References. It’s probably obvious that the authority of material that comes in private communications varies greatly with the status of the source. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. What someone writes to you by email may be useful as a source of opinion, but can seldom be relied on as definitive information, unless you’re in correspondence with a recognized expert. Even if the message is sent to more than one recipient, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the sender’s permission before making the material public. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. And even in these cases, the informality of email makes most authors much less careful about checking facts and conclusions, rendering the information less authoritative. If you received the message as a forward, the obligation to seek permission is even more urgent, as the original author likely has no reason to expect you to use the message in your own work. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. Most email messages should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. If you do use material from an email, the format for listing in MLA style is fairly simple, as in the example above: Author, Subject, “Email to the author,” and Date. In APA style, you do not include in your list of References any source that can’t be retrieved by your reader. If you use email in your paper, cite it as a personal communication in your text, and do not list it at the end. For Chicago style, private messages are given full citation in a footnote, but not included in the Bibliography. Note: As discussed in the section on Signaling Sources, it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private messages. If you give a sense of what kind of source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See Special Demands of Internet Sources for more information. ] [site sponsor or publisher,] [date of last revision.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.] Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. Retrieved July 26, 2006, from: is external) [page title.] [(“n.d.”).] [In website name.] [Retrieved date, from: URL] Chicago: 26. #.] [“title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see More Notes on Chicago Style for more information.] Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. To list material from Wikipedia, you should review the advice for organization websites. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access. But Wikipedia merits additional attention because of its recent growth and popularity. Some professors will warn you not to use Wikipedia because they believe its information is unreliable. As a community project with no central review committee, Wikipedia certainly contains its share of incorrect information and uninformed opinion. And since it presents itself as an encyclopedia, Wikipedia can sometimes seem more trustworthy than the average website, even to writers who would be duly careful about private websites or topic websites. But the main problem with using Wikipedia as an important source in your research is not that it gets things wrong. In this sense, it should be treated as a popular rather than scholarly source. Some of its contributors are leaders in their fields, and, besides, some print sources contain errors. The problem, instead, is that Wikipedia strives for a lower level of expertise than professors expect from Yale students. As an encyclopedia, Wikipedia is written for a common readership. But students in Yale courses are already consulting primary materials and learning from experts in the discipline. In this context, to rely on Wikipedia—even when the material is accurate—is to position your work as inexpert and immature. If you use Wikipedia for general background, check several other sources before using the material in your essays. Some of the facts you find may be attributable to common knowledge (see Common Knowledge for more discussion). You may also be able to track opinions or deeper ideas back to their original sources. In many cases, your course readings will contain similar ideas in better, more quotable language. Many student writers are tempted to use Wikipedia for definitions of terms (the same way a beginning writer might quote a dictionary). Of course, if you do use language or information from Wikipedia, you must cite it—to do otherwise constitutes plagiarism. But in most cases, a definition drawn or paraphrased from the primary course readings—or from other scholarly sources—will be more effective. The advice here is not to hide what Wikipedia contributes to your ideas, but rather to move beyond Wikipedia and write from a more knowledgeable, expert stance. Always verify which revision or edition is being used by the online site before using. The style recommended by the American Medical Association AMA is often. APSA style generally follows Chicago Manual of Style's author-date citation.


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